The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 27 , Tobler, Marco C. Mangayayam, Changyong Lu, Frans W. ACS Omega , 5 6 , McGuire, Matthew C. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 67 34 , Tyson, Zhiguo Yuan, Shihu Hu. Biochar-Mediated Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane. Marshall, Markus Kraft. Nanostructure of Gasification Charcoal Biochar. ACS Omega , 4 3 , Cayuela, Daniel P.
Rasse, Miguel A. Konhauser, Daniel S. Hinks, Libor Kovarik, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Mary K. Gilles, Alexander Laskin. Analytical Chemistry , 90 16 , Levin, Michael P. Schmidt, Juan J. Muller, Largus T. Angenent, Johannes Lehmann. Analytical Chemistry , 90 14 , Kelley, Sunkyu Park. ACS Omega , 3 6 , Harvey, Burke C. Leonce, Bruce E.
Kelley , David C. Tilotta , and Sunkyu Park. Gilles , and Alexander Laskin. Pignatello , William A. Mitch , and Wenqing Xu. Spokas , M. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 65 15 , Libra , and Baoshan Xing. Huggins , Justin M. Whiteley , Corey T.
Castaldi , and Alexander Orlov. Joseph , James M. Hook , Chee H. Chia , Paul R. Beau W. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 64 24 , Pyle , William C. Kinney , and Caroline A. Dahlgren , and Alex T. Chemical Reviews , 22 , Brookes , Yan He , and Jianming Xu. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 62 44 , An individual case review of diving -related deaths, reported as occurring in Australia in , was conducted as part of the DAN Asia-Pacific dive fatality reporting project.
The case studies were compiled using reports from witnesses, the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of the accident and details from the post-mortem examination, where available, are provided. In total, there were 19 reported fatalities the same as for , 17 involving males. One diver died while using surface-supply breathing apparatus. Two breath-hold divers appear to have died as a result of apnoeic hypoxia, at least one case likely associated with hyperventilation.
Two deaths resulted from trauma: one from impact with a boat and the other from an encounter with a great white shark. Cardiac-related issues were thought to have contributed to the deaths of five snorkellers and at least two, possibly three, scuba divers. Trauma from a marine creature, snorkelling or diving alone, apnoeic hypoxia and pre-existing medical conditions were once again features in several deaths in this series.
Optimal diving under the risk of predation. Many air-breathing aquatic foragers may be killed by aerial or subsurface predators while recovering oxygen at the surface; yet the influence of predation risk on time allocation during dive cycles is little known in spite of numerous studies on optimal diving. We modeled diving behavior under the risk of predation at the surface. The relationship between time spent at the surface and the risk of death is predicted to influence the optimal surface interval, regardless of whether foragers accumulate energy at a constant rate while at the food patch, deplete food resources over the course of the dive , or must search for food during the dive.
When instantaneous predation risk during a single surface interval decreases with time spent at the surface, a diver should increase its surface interval relative to that which maximizes energy intake, thereby increasing dive durations and reducing the number of surfacings per foraging bout.
When instantaneous risk over a single surface interval does not change or increases with increasing time at the surface, divers should decrease their surface interval and consequently their dive duration relative to that which maximizes energy intake resulting in more dives per foraging bout.
The fitness consequences of selecting a suboptimal surface interval vary with the risk function and the way divers harvest energy when at depth. Finally, predation risk during surface intervals should have important consequences for habitat selection and other aspects of the behavioral ecology of air-breathing aquatic organisms. The death of buddy diving? Dear Editor, By focussing on the details of the Watson case, I believe Bryan Walpole has missed the thrust of my earlier letter.
I agree this was a complex case, which is why I deliberately avoided the murky specifics in order to consider the 'big-picture' ramifications of the judgement. My concerns relate to the potential consequences of the unintended interplay between unrelated developments in the medical and legal arenas. Taken together, I believe these developments threaten the very institution of buddy diving.
I have been unable to verify Dr Walpole's claim that the statute under which Mr Watson was convicted has not been used previously in a criminal trial. I must, however, refute his assertion that this legislation is some sort of idiosyncratic historical hangover or legal curiosity unique to Queensland. Although the original legislation pre-dates Australian federation, this statute has survived intact through years of reviews and amendments to the Queensland Criminal Code.
The application of this 19th century law to the Watson case now provides a direct, post-federation, 21st century relevance. Nor is Queensland alone in having such a statute on its books. Section of the Criminal Code Act in Dr Walpole's home state of Tasmania states "When a person undertakes to do any act, the omission to do which is or may be dangerous to human life or health, it is his duty to do that act.
The phrasing of the relevant sections is, in many cases, almost identical to Queensland's, reflecting the common judicial heritage of these places. Even if this ruling's reach extended no further than the Queensland border its ramifications would be immense. Tourism statistics reveal that over 1. Comparative incidences of decompression illness in repetitive, staged, mixed-gas decompression diving : is ' dive fitness' an influencing factor?
Wreck diving at Bikini Atoll consists of a relatively standard series of decompression dives with maximum depths in the region of metres' sea water msw. In a typical week of diving at Bikini, divers can perform up to 12 decompression dives to these depths over seven days; on five of those days, divers can perform two decompression dives per day. Bikini is serviced by a single diving operator and so a relatively precise record exists both of the actual number of dives undertaken and of the decompression illness incidents both for customer divers and the dive guides.
The dive guides follow exactly the dive profiles and decompression schedules of the customers. Each dive guide will perform nearly decompression dives a year, with maximum depths mostly around 50 msw, compared with an average of 10 maximum of 12 undertaken typically by each customer diver in a week.
The incidence of decompression illness for the customer population presumed in the absence of medical records is over ten times higher than that for the dive guides. The physiological reasons for such a marked difference are discussed in terms of customer demographics and dive -guide acclimatization to repetitive decompression stress.
The rates of decompression illness for a range of diving populations are reviewed. Accidents - Chernobyl accident ; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl. This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones.
The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident , the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident.
The dark data extraction or knowledge base construction KBC problem is to populate a SQL database with information from unstructured data sources including emails, webpages, and pdf reports. KBC is a long-standing problem in industry and research that encompasses problems of data extraction, cleaning, and integration.
We describe Deep Dive , a system that combines database and machine learning ideas to help develop KBC systems. The key idea in Deep Dive is that statistical inference and machine learning are key tools to attack classical data problems in extraction, cleaning, and integration in a unified and more effective manner. Deep Dive programs are declarative in that one cannot write probabilistic inference algorithms; instead, one interacts by defining features or rules about the domain.
A key reason for this design choice is to enable domain experts to build their own KBC systems. We present the applications, abstractions, and techniques of Deep Dive employed to accelerate construction of KBC systems. The aim of this project was to record sounds impinging on free-ranging northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, a first step in determining the importance of LFS to these animals as they dive Impacts of Artificial Reefs and Diving Tourism.
Full Text Available Coral reefs are currently endangered throughout the world. One of the main activities responsible for this is scuba- diving. Scuba- diving on coral reefs was not problematic in the begging, but due to popularization of the new sport, more and more tourists desired to participate in the activity.
Mass tourism, direct contact of the tourists with the coral reefs and unprofessional behavior underwater has a negative effect on the coral reefs. The conflict between nature preservation and economy benefits related to scuba- diving tourism resulted in the creation of artificial reefs, used both to promote marine life and as tourists attractions, thereby taking the pressure off the natural coral reefs.
Ships, vehicles and other large structures can be found on the coastal sea floor in North America, Australia, Japan and Europe. The concept of artificial reefs as a scuba- diving attraction was developed in Florida. The main goal was to promote aquaculture, with the popularization of scuba- diving attractions being a secondary effect.
The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of artificial reefs on scuba- diving tourism, while taking into account the questionnaire carried out among 18 divers. The effect of pre- dive ingestion of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a scuba dive. The aim of the study was to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after scuba diving.
They performed a metres deep scuba-air dive for 20 minutes in a diving pool Nemo 33, Brussels. Flow-mediated dilatation FMD , digital photoplethysmography and nitric oxide NO and peroxynitrites ONOO- levels were measured before and after the scuba dive in both groups. Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 90 minutes before scuba diving prevented post- dive endothelial dysfunction, as the antioxidants contained in dark chocolate probably scavenge free radicals. A forensic diving medicine examination of a highly publicised scuba diving fatality.
A high-profile diving death occurred in at the site of the wreck of the SS Yongala off the Queensland coast. The victim's buddy, her husband, was accused of her murder and found guilty of manslaughter in an Australian court. A detailed analysis of all the evidence concerning this fatality suggests alternative medical reasons for her death. The value of decompression computers in determining the diving details and of CT scans in clarifying autopsy findings is demonstrated.
The victim was medically, physically and psychologically unfit to undertake the fatal dive. She was inexperienced and inadequately supervised. She was over-weighted and exposed for the first time to difficult currents. The analysis of the dive demonstrates how important it is to consider the interaction of all factors and to not make deductions from individual items of information.
It also highlights the importance of early liaison between expert divers, technicians, diving clinicians and pathologists, if inappropriate conclusions are to be avoided. Environmental Physiology and Diving Medicine. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival.
This summary will illustrate briefly the physiological changes induced by immersion, swimming, breath-hold diving and exploring while using special equipment in the water. Cardiac, circulatory and pulmonary vascular adaptation and the pathophysiology of novel syndromes have been demonstrated, which will allow selection of individual characteristics in order to succeed in various environments.
Training and treatment for these new microenvironments will be suggested with description of successful pioneers in this field. This is a summary of the physiology and the present status of pathology and therapy for the field. Blood oxygen depletion is independent of dive function in a deep diving vertebrate, the northern elephant seal.
Full Text Available Although energetics is fundamental to animal ecology, traditional methods of determining metabolic rate are neither direct nor instantaneous. Recently, continuous blood oxygen O2 measurements were used to assess energy expenditure in diving elephant seals Mirounga angustirostris, demonstrating that an exceptional hypoxemic tolerance and exquisite management of blood O2 stores underlie the extraordinary diving capability of this consummate diver.
As the detailed relationship of energy expenditure and dive behavior remains unknown, we integrated behavior, ecology, and physiology to characterize the costs of different types of dives of elephant seals. This is the first account linking behavior at this level with in vivo blood O2 measurements in an animal freely diving at sea, allowing us to assess patterns of O2 utilization and energy expenditure between various behaviors and activities in an animal in the wild.
In routine dives of elephant seals, the blood O2 store was significantly depleted to a similar range irrespective of dive function, suggesting that all dive types have equal costs in terms of blood O2 depletion. Here, we present the first physiological evidence that all dive types have similarly high blood O2 demands, supporting an energy balance strategy achieved by devoting one major task to a given dive , thereby separating dive functions into distinct dive types.
This strategy may optimize O2 store utilization and recovery, consequently maximizing time underwater and allowing these animals to take full advantage of their underwater resources. Recreational technical diving part 1: an introduction to technical diving methods and activities.
The use of oxygen-nitrogen nitrox mixes with oxygen fractions higher than air results in longer no-decompression limits for shallow diving , and faster decompression from deeper dives. For depths beyond the air- diving range, technical divers mix helium, a light non-narcotic gas, with nitrogen and oxygen to produce 'trimix'. These blends are tailored to the depth of intended use with a fraction of oxygen calculated to produce an inspired oxygen partial pressure unlikely to cause cerebral oxygen toxicity and a nitrogen fraction calculated to produce a tolerable degree of nitrogen narcosis.
A typical deep technical dive will involve the use of trimix at the target depth with changes to gases containing more oxygen and less inert gas during the decompression. Open-circuit scuba may be used to carry and utilise such gases, but this is very wasteful of expensive helium. There is increasing use of closed-circuit 'rebreather' devices. These recycle expired gas and potentially limit gas consumption to a small amount of inert gas to maintain the volume of the breathing circuit during descent and the amount of oxygen metabolised by the diver.
This paper reviews the basic approach to planning and execution of dives using these methods to better inform physicians of the physical demands and risks. Underwater laboratory: Teaching physics through diving practice. Diving education and diving science and technology may be a useful tool in teaching physics in non—physics-oriented High School courses. In this paper we present an activity which combines some simple theoretical aspects of fluid statics, fluid dynamics and gas behavior under pressure with diving experience, where the swimming pool and the sea are used as a laboratory.
This topic had previously been approached in a pure experimental way in school laboratory, but some particular experiments became much more attractive and meaningful to the students when they could use their bodies to perform them directly in water. The activity was carried out with groups of students from Italian High School classes in different situations.
Accidents - Chernobyl accident. Postulated accidents. This lecture on 'Postulated Accidents ' is the first of a series of lectures on the dynamic and transient behaviour of nuclear power plants, especially pressurized water reactors.
This lecture will discuss the accident analysis in general, the definition of the various operational phases, the accident classification, and, as an example, an accident sequence analysis on the basis of 'Postulated Accidents '. The marine mammal dive response is exercise modulated to maximize aerobic dive duration.
When aquatically adapted mammals and birds swim submerged, they exhibit a dive response in which breathing ceases, heart rate slows, and blood flow to peripheral tissues and organs is reduced. The most intense dive response occurs during forced submersion which conserves blood oxygen for the brain and heart, thereby preventing asphyxiation.
In free- diving animals, the dive response is less profound, and energy metabolism remains aerobic. However, even this relatively moderate bradycardia seems diametrically opposed to the normal cardiovascular response i. As a result, there has been a long-standing paradox regarding how aquatic mammals and birds exercise while submerged.
We hypothesized based on cardiovascular modeling that heart rate must increase to ensure adequate oxygen delivery to active muscles. These results support our hypothesis that marine mammals maintain aerobic muscle metabolism while swimming submerged by combining elements of both dive and exercise responses, with one or the other predominating depending on the level of exertion.
Navy diving accidents , and with the assistance of the British Hyperbaric Association BHA all civilian cases of decompression illness treated by member. Deadly diving? Physiological and behavioural management of decompression stress in diving mammals. Hooker, S. The basic pathology and cause are relatively well known to human divers. Breath-hold diving marine mammals were thought to be relatively immune to DCS owing to multiple anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations that reduce nitrogen gas N2 loading during dives.
However, recent observations have shown that gas bubbles may form and tissue injury may occur in marine mammals under certain circumstances. Gas kinetic models based on measured time-depth profiles further suggest the potential occurrence of high blood and tissue N2 tensions. We review evidence for gas-bubble incidence in marine mammal tissues and discuss the theory behind gas loading and bubble formation.
We suggest that diving mammals vary their physiological responses according to multiple stressors, and that the perspective on marine mammal diving physiology should change from simply minimizing N2 loading to management of the N2 load. Technological advances in imaging and remote instrumentation are likely to advance this field in coming years. The relationship between tolerated high-pressure tissue nitrogen and ambient pressure is practically linear. The tolerated nitrogen high pressure decreases at altitude, as the ambient pressure is lower.
Additionally, tissues with short nitrogen half-times have a higher tolerance than tissues which retain nitrogen for longer duration. For the purpose of determining safe decompression routines, the human body can be regarded as consisting of 16 compartments with half-times from 4 to minutes for nitrogen. The coefficients for calculation of the tolerated nitrogen-high pressure in the tissues can be deduced directly from the half-times for nitrogen.
We show as application the results of simulated air dives in the pressure-chamber and real dives in mountain lakes in Switzerland m above sea level and in Lake Titicaca m above sea level. They are in accordance with the computed limits of tolerance. Diving is classified within a group of sports accompanied with an increased risk, yet it is a sport of full biological significance. Diving implies change of immediate human environment. Water, as the natural ambient for diving issues specific demands to the organism, which in turn influence decrease in psychophysical abilities when underwater, and in some instances, immediately after emerging from it.
The most important factors influencing decrease in psychophysical abilities are: immersion, Other demographic data such as age, height, weight , and diving experience were also collected for later correlational analyses. The dive took place. Accident management. The development of a Severe Accident Management Program at a plant is based on the use of the information, in conjunction with other applicable information.
A Severe Accident Management Program must address both accident prevention and accident mitigation. The overall Severe Accident Management framework must address these two facets, as a living program in terms of gathering the evaluating information, the readiness to respond to an event. Significant international experience in the development of severe accident management programs exist which should provide some direction for the development of Severe Accident Management in the U.
This paper reports that the two most important elements of a Severe Accident Management Program are the Emergency Consultation process and the standards for measuring the effectiveness of individual Severe Accident Management Programs at utilities. Unavoidable Accident. In negligence law, "unavoidable accident " is the risk that remains when an actor has used due care.
The counterpart of unavoidable accident is "negligent harm. Courts have developed a number of methods by which they "sort" accidents to unavoidable accident or to negligent harm, holding parties liable only for the latter. These sorting techniques are interesting in their own right and als The use of scuba diving as a recreational activity within traditional university instructional programs has been well established.
Departments focusing on kinesiology, physical education, or exercise science have often provided scuba diving lessons as part of their activity-based course offerings. However, few departments have developed an…. Diving bradycardia: a mechanism of defence against hypoxic damage. A feature of all air-breathing vertebrates, diving bradycardia is triggered by apnoea and accentuated by immersion of the face or whole body in cold water.
Very little is known about the afferents of diving bradycardia, whereas the efferent part of the reflex circuit is constituted by the cardiac vagal fibres. Diving bradycardia is associated with vasoconstriction of selected vascular beds and a reduction in cardiac output. The diving response appears to be more pronounced in mammals than in birds. During prolonged dives , bradycardia becomes more pronounced because of activation of the peripheral chemoreceptors by a reduction in the arterial partial pressure of oxygen O2 , responsible for slowing of heart rate.
The vasoconstriction is associated with a redistribution of the blood flow, which saves O2 for the O2-sensitive organs, such as the heart and brain. The results of several investigations carried out both in animals and in humans show that the diving response has an O2-conserving effect, both during exercise and at rest, thus lengthening the time to the onset of serious hypoxic damage.
The diving response can therefore be regarded as an important defence mechanism for the organism. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under Preventing accidents. As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses Accident management for severe accidents.
The management of severe accidents in light water reactors is receiving much attention in several countries. The research program that is being conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission focuses on both in-vessel accident management and containment and release accident management.
The key issues and approaches taken in this program are summarized. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving. Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.
In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive , the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma.
Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving -induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage. Optimal diving behaviour and respiratory gas exchange in birds. This review discusses the advancements in our understanding of the physiology and behaviour of avian diving that have been underpinned by optimal foraging theory and the testing of optimal models.
To maximise their foraging efficiency during foraging periods, diving birds must balance numerous factors that are directly or indirectly related to the replenishment of the oxygen stores and the removal of excess carbon dioxide. These include 1 the time spent underwater which diminishes the oxygen supply, increases carbon dioxide levels and may even include a build up of lactate due to anaerobic metabolism , 2 the time spent at the surface recovering from the previous dive and preparing for the next including reloading their oxygen supply, decreasing their carbon dioxide levels and possibly also metabolising lactate and 3 the trade-off between maximising oxygen reserves for consumption underwater by taking in more air to the respiratory system, and minimising the energy costs of positive buoyancy caused by this air, to maximise the time available underwater to forage.
Due to its importance in avian diving , replenishment of the oxygen stores has become integral to models of optimal diving , which predict the time budgeting of animals foraging underwater. While many of these models have been examined qualitatively, such tests of predictive trends appear fallible and only quantifiable support affords strong evidence of their predictive value.
This review describes how the quantification of certain optimal diving models, using tufted ducks, indeed demonstrates some predictive success. This suggests that replenishment of the oxygen stores and removal of excess carbon dioxide have significant influences on the duration of the surface period between dives. Nevertheless, present models are too simplistic to be robust predictors of diving behaviour for individual animals and it is proposed that they require refinement through the incorporation of other variables that also.
Diving response in rats: role of the subthalamic vasodilator area. Being present in all animals and humans it allows to survive adverse conditions like diving. Earlier we discovered that forehead stimulation affords neuroprotective effect decreasing infarction volume triggered by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats.
We hypothesized that cold stimulation of the forehead induces diving response in rats, which, in turn, exerts neuroprotection. We compared autonomic AP, HR, CBF and EEG responses to the known diving response-triggering stimulus, ammonia stimulation of the nasal mucosa, cold stimulation of the forehead, and cold stimulation of the glabrous skin of the tail base in anesthetized rats. Responses in AP, HR, CBF and EEG to cold stimulation of the forehead and ammonia vapors instillation into the nasal cavity were comparable and differed significantly from responses to the cold stimulation of the tail base.
Excitotoxic lesion of the subthalamic vasodilator area, which is known to participate in CBF regulation and to afford neuroprotection upon excitation, failed to affect autonomic components of the diving response evoked by forehead cold stimulation or nasal mucosa ammonia stimulation.
We conclude that cold stimulation of the forehead triggers physiological response comparable to the response evoked by ammonia vapor instillation into the nasal cavity, which considered as stimulus triggering protective diving response. These observations may explain the neuroprotective effect of the forehead stimulation. Data demonstrate that subthalamic vasodilator area does not directly participate in the autonomic adjustments accompanying diving response, however, it is involved in diving -evoked modulation of EEG.
We suggest that forehead stimulation can be employed as a stimulus capable of triggering oxygen-conserving diving response and can be used for neuroprotective therapy. Venous oxygen content can actually increase during short duration dives. This suggests very little muscle blood flow and evven the use Nuclear accidents. On 27 May the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident.
The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents ; compensation issues; and international cooperation. Navy divers operating in contaminated water.
This survey attempted to identify the current best practices and equipment for diving in contaminated water, including personal protective equipment as well as hazard identification, diver training B-type natriuretic peptide secretion following scuba diving. To examine the neurohormonal effects of a scuba dive , focusing on the acute changes in the plasma concentrations of the different peptide fragments from the B-type natriuretic peptide BNP precursor Penguins are sea birds that swim using lift and drag forces by flapping their wings like other birds.
Although diving data can be obtained using a micro-data logger which has improved in recent years, all the necessary diving conditions for analysis cannot be acquired. In order to determine all these hard-to-get conditions, the posture and lift and drag forces of penguins were theoretically calculated by the technique used in the analysis of the optimal flight path of aircrafts. Then, the calculation result and experimental data were compared, and found to be in good agreement.
Thus, it is fully possible to determine the actual conditions of dive by this calculation, even those that cannot be acquired using a data logger. Full Text Available Diving is classified within a group of sports accompanied with an increased risk, yet it is a sport of full biological significance. The most important factors influencing decrease in psychophysical abilities are: immersion, increased ambient pressure, characteristics of diving equipment and atmosphere separation.
The senses and the mental processes of the diver are significantly altered during the autonomous diving. Loss of self-weight perception and pressure put on joints cause disorders in function of kinesthetic senses and vestibular apparatus, which in turn becomes reflected on proprioception.
Coldness of water, especially at grater depths, induces decline in pain sensation as well as in aptness and mobility of fingers. Sight remains normal, but the image received is slightly changed due to refraction of light on boundary surfaces. Visual field is narrowed down to fit the limited diving mask field of view. At the same time, diffusion of light and color absorption brings about the loss of both ability to perceive things and contrasts when at depths.
Objects tend to appear bigger and closer underwater. Hearing is changed owing to the fact that the sound is not carried through the air but through the water, yet the speed of transmission causes only slight difference of left and right ear stimulation. Mental processes, informationassessment, creation of clear mental images of the actual moment, abstract thinking, decision making, etc.
This state can be partly ascribed to the above mentioned problems with senses, partly to the greater influence of emotional as opposed to rational, but also to the narcotic effect of nitrogen that is produced while. Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving , or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma.
Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners.
We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a pa According to previous studies, plasma erythropoietin EPO may decrease after hyperbaric oxygen exposure due to oxidative stress. It is hypothesized that the decrease of EPO can be attenuated by oxygen free radical scavengers.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether EPO plasma levels can be influenced by oral application of vitamin C and E before repeated hyperbaric oxygen exposure during diving. The EPO concentrations in the vitamin group did not show relevant variations compared to baseline. Radical scavenging vitamins C and D may counteract hyperbaric oxygen related mechanisms reducing EPO production in hyperbaric oxygen exposure during diving. Poor flight performance in deep- diving cormorants.
Aerial flight and breath-hold diving present conflicting morphological and physiological demands, and hence diving seabirds capable of flight are expected to face evolutionary trade-offs regarding locomotory performances.
We tested whether Kerguelen shags Phalacrocorax verrucosus, which are remarkable divers, have poor flight capability using newly developed tags that recorded their flight air speed the first direct measurement for wild birds with propeller sensors, flight duration, GPS position and depth during foraging trips.
Flight air speed mean Flights were short mean 92 s , with a mean summed duration of only 24 min day Shags sometimes stayed at the sea surface without diving between flights, even on the way back to the colony, and surface durations increased with the preceding flight durations; these observations suggest that shags rested after flights.
Our results indicate that their flight performance is physiologically limited, presumably compromised by their great diving capability max. The compromise between flight and diving , as well as the local bathymetry, shape the three-dimensional foraging range Extracting Databases from Dark Data with Deep Dive.
Deep Dive is a system for extracting relational databases from dark data : the mass of text, tables, and images that are widely collected and stored but which cannot be exploited by standard relational tools. If the information in dark data - scientific papers, Web classified ads, customer service notes, and so on - were instead in a relational database, it would give analysts a massive and valuable new set of "big data. To date we have successfully deployed Deep Dive to create data-centric applications for insurance, materials science, genomics, paleontologists, law enforcement, and others.
The data unlocked by Deep Dive represents a massive opportunity for industry, government, and scientific researchers. Deep Dive is enabled by an unusual design that combines large-scale probabilistic inference with a novel developer interaction cycle. This design is enabled by several core innovations around probabilistic training and inference. Scuba diving , acute left anterior descending artery occlusion and normal ECG. We report the case of an acute proximal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary LAD artery following a scuba diving decompression accident and associated with normal ECG.
A transthoracic echocardiography performed at this point showed a complete recovery compared with an initial localised akinesia involving the anterior and apical portion of the left ventricle upon admission. The presence of acute and persistent angina associated with troponin elevation should prompt physicians to consider coronary angiography without delay, independently of the ECG results.
Normal accidents. The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in , he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents ', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable.
Accident Statistics. Data from reports has been loaded for Radiation accidents. Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional.
In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents , the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters.
In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. Sports Accidents. On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents RA , a classification of RA by severity five groups of accidents according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed.
A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification. Ketogenic diet for high partial pressure oxygen diving. The exact mechanism of neuroprotection from the KD remains unknown; however, evidence to support the efficacy of the KD in reducing seizures is present in epilepsy and oxygen toxicity studies, and may provide valuable insight in diving activities.
Three divers two males and one female ages with a history of deep diving and high pO2 exposure on the KD made dives to varying depths in Hawaii using fully closed-circuit MK and Inspiration rebreathers. These rebreathers have an electronically controlled set point, allowing the divers to monitor and control the oxygen level in the breathing loop, which can be varied manually by the divers.
Oxygen level was varied during descent, bottom depth and ascent decompression. Divers fasted for hours before diet initiation. The ketosis level was verified by urinating on a Ketostix reagent strips for urinalysis. Ketosis was achieved and was easily monitored with Ketostix in the simulated operational environment.
The KD did not interfere with the diving mission; no seizure activity or signs or symptoms of CNS toxicity were observed, and there were no adverse effects noted by the divers while on the KD. Using logistic regression, we focus on the total times spent at decompression stops For calibration data, we use carefully controlled experimental dives recorded in the U.
Before the experimental dive , subjects received 40 microg of Desmopressin intranasally. Before and after each dive blood samples were taken, performance assessments were performed, and urine, electrolyte and hematologic values were determined Case Studies from Malaysia. Dive tourism impacts were examined in three Malaysian islands: Perhentian backpackers , Redang package tourism and Mabul upmarket dive tourism.
Dive tourism affected many aspects of community life. Several years ago we created an exciting and engaging multimedia exhibit for the Hatfield Marine Science Center that lets visitors simulate making a dive to the seafloor with the remotely operated vehicle ROV named ROPOS. The exhibit immerses the user in an interactive experience that is naturally fun but also educational. We are now completing a revision to the project that will make this engaging virtual exploration accessible to a much larger audience.
With minor modifications we will be able to put the exhibit onto the world wide web so that any person with internet access can view and learn about exciting volcanic and hydrothermal activity at Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The modifications address some cosmetic and logistic ISSUES confronted in the museum environment, but will mainly involve compressing video clips so they can be delivered more efficiently over the internet.
The web version, like the museum version, will allow users to choose from 1 of 3 different dives sites in the caldera of Axial Volcano. The dives are based on real seafloor settings at Axial seamount, an active submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge NE Pacific that is also the location of a seafloor observatory called NeMO. Once a dive is chosen, then the user watches ROPOS being deployed and then arrives into a 3-D computer-generated seafloor environment that is based on the real world but is easier to visualize and navigate.
Once on the bottom, the user is placed within a degree panorama and can look in all directions by manipulating the computer mouse. By clicking on markers embedded in the scene, the user can then either move to other panorama locations via movies that travel through the 3-D virtual environment, or they can play video clips from actual ROPOS dives specifically related to that scene.
Audio accompanying the video clips informs the user where they are. Foraging dives by post-breeding northern pintails. Pintails are not as adapted for diving as members of Aythyini or Oxyurini Catlett and Johnston, Comp.
Birds , ; Bourget and Chapdelaine, Wildfowl , This paper reports on forage diving by a flock of several hundred pintails. Ecological explanations are suggested to account for the behavior and comparisons with tip-up feeding are presented. Physiological constraints and energetic costs of diving behaviour in marine mammals: a review of studies using trained Steller sea lions diving in the open ocean.
Marine mammals are characterized as having physiological specializations that maximize the use of oxygen stores to prolong time spent under water. However, it has been difficult to undertake the requisite controlled studies to determine the physiological limitations and trade-offs that marine mammals face while diving in the wild under varying environmental and nutritional conditions. For the past decade, Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus trained to swim and dive in the open ocean away from the physical confines of pools participated in studies that investigated the interactions between diving behaviour, energetic costs, physiological constraints, and prey availability.
Many of these studies measured the cost of diving to understand how it varies with behaviour and environmental and physiological conditions. Collectively, these studies show that the type of diving dive bouts or single dives , the level of underwater activity, the depth and duration of dives , and the nutritional status and physical condition of the animal affect the cost of diving and foraging.
They show that dive depth, dive and surface duration, and the type of dive result in physiological adjustments heart rate, gas exchange that may be independent of energy expenditure. They also demonstrate that changes in prey abundance and nutritional status cause sea lions to alter the balance between time spent at the surface acquiring oxygen and offloading CO 2 and other metabolic by-products and time spent at depth acquiring prey.
These new insights into the physiological basis of diving behaviour further our understanding of the potential scope for behavioural responses of marine mammals to environmental changes, the energetic significance of these adjustments, and the consequences of approaching physiological limits. Dark chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction after successive breath-hold dives in cool water. The aim of this study is to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a series of successive apnea dives in non-thermoneutral water.
Twenty breath-hold divers were divided into two groups: a control group 8 males and 2 females and a chocolate group 9 males and 1 female. The chocolate group performed the dives 1 h after ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate.
A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dives No differences in digital photoplethysmography and peroxynitrites were observed between before and after the dives. Antioxidants contained in dark chocolate scavenge free radicals produced during breath-hold diving.
Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 1 h before the dive can thus prevent endothelial dysfunction which can be observed after a series of breath-hold dives. Criticality accident :. A criticality accident occurred at on September 30, Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups.
The cardiovascular and endocrine responses to voluntary and forced diving in trained and untrained rats. The mammalian diving response, consisting of apnea, bradycardia, and increased total peripheral resistance, can be modified by conscious awareness, fear, and anticipation. We wondered whether swim and dive training in rats would 1 affect the magnitude of the cardiovascular responses during voluntary and forced diving , and 2 whether this training would reduce or eliminate any stress due to diving.
Results indicate Sprague-Dawley rats have a substantial diving response. Approximately 4. Blood corticosterone levels indicate trained rats find diving no more stressful than being held by a human, while untrained rats find swimming and diving very stressful.
Forced diving is stressful to both trained and untrained rats. The magnitude of bradycardia was similar during both voluntary and forced diving , while the increase in MAP was greater during forced diving. The diving response of laboratory rats, therefore, appears to be dissimilar from that of other animals, as most birds and mammals show intensification of diving bradycardia during forced diving compared with voluntary diving.
Rats may exhibit an accentuated antagonism between the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, such that in the autonomic control of HR, parasympathetic activity overpowers sympathetic activity. Additionally, laboratory rats may lack the ability to modify the degree of parasympathetic outflow to the heart during an intense cardiorespiratory response i. Persistent patent foramen ovale PFO : implications for safe diving.
Diving medicine is a peculiar specialty. There are physicians and scientists from a wide variety of disciplines with an interest in diving and who all practice ' diving medicine': the study of the complex whole-body physiological changes and interactions upon immersion and emersion. To understand these, the science of physics and molecular gas and fluid movements comes into play. The ultimate goal of practicing diving medicine is to preserve the diver's health, both during and after the dive.
Good medicine starts with prevention. For most divers, underwater excursions are not a professional necessity but a hobby; avoidance of risk is generally a much better option than risk mitigation or cure. However, prevention of diving illnesses seems to be even more difficult than treating those illnesses.
The papers contained in this issue of DHM are a nice mix of various aspects of PFO that divers are interested in, all of them written by specialist doctors who are avid divers themselves. However, diving medicine should also take advantage of research from the "non- diving " medicine community, and PFO is a prime example. Cardiology and neurology have studied PFO for as long, or even longer than divers have been the subjects of PFO research, and with much greater numbers and resources.
Unexplained stroke has been associated with PFO, as has severe migraine with aura. As the association seems to be strong, investigating the effect of PFO closure was a logical step. Devices have been developed and perfected, allowing now for a relatively low-risk procedure to 'solve the PFO problem'. However, as with many things in science, the results have not been as spectacular as hoped for: patients still get recurrences of stroke, still have migraine attacks.
The risk-benefit ratio of PFO closure for these non- diving diseases is still debated. For diving , we now face a similar problem. Dive In! What is it really like to plunge into the world of science learning and teaching? Find out in this unique book.
That experience yielded this book's reason for being: to provide…. Exposure to high partial pressures of oxygen PO2 could cause damage to the central nervous system CNS and pulmonary system. Longer exposure time and higher PO2 leads. Jan 5, South Africa. Under conditions of normal atmospheric pressure, breath- holding results in important changes in the mechanism whereby the CO, is transported Hong,' in a field study of Korean diving women, noted that they Understanding the physiology and genetics of human hypoxia tolerance has important medical implications, but this phenomenon has thus far only been investigated in high-altitude human populations.
Another system, yet to be explored, is humans who engage in breath-hold diving. The indigenous Bajau This paper describes a very simple exercise using an inverted test tube pushed straight down into a column of water to determine the free-fall acceleration "g". The exercise employs the ideal gas law and only involves the measurement of the displacement of the bottom of the " diving bell" and the water level inside the tube with respect to the….
Diving -flight aerodynamics of a peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus. Full Text Available This study investigates the aerodynamics of the falcon Falco peregrinus while diving. Unfortunately, in freely roaming falcons, these high velocities prohibit a precise determination of flight parameters such as velocity and acceleration as well as body shape and wing contour.
Therefore, individual F. The presence of a well-defined background allowed us to reconstruct the flight path and the body shape of the falcon during certain flight phases. Flight trajectories were obtained with a stereo high-speed camera system. In addition, body images of the falcon were taken from two perspectives with a high-resolution digital camera.
The dam allowed us to match the high-resolution images obtained from the digital camera with the corresponding images taken with the high-speed cameras. Using these data we built a life-size model of F. We compared these forces acting on the model with the data obtained from the 3-D flight path trajectory of the diving F.
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